The Complete Guide to Core Spanish Grammar Topics



Trying to study Spanish grammar however don’t know the place to begin?

Don’t fear—if you happen to take it little by little, you too will be capable to navigate the intricacies of Spanish grammar!

On this submit, we’ll go over all of the important parts of Spanish grammar, and supply sources the place you’ll be able to study them in depth. It’s like our very personal Spanish grammar Wiki.

Able to get began?



Nouns are primarily the title for any individual, animal, place, factor, high quality, thought or motion.

As with English, Spanish nouns have a number of classifications. There are 9 various kinds of nouns in whole, and understanding them is difficult by the easy truth that you just in all probability aren’t accustomed to noun classifications in English, both (responsible). 


Should you solely converse English, it could take a while to get your head across the idea of gender in Spanish grammar. However simply go together with it! 

Put merely, each noun in Spanish is classed as both masculine or female. 

And, whereas there are some rules regarding gender, whether or not a phrase is masculine or female just isn’t all the time apparent. That’s why it’s necessary to study the gender of a noun on the identical time you study its translation. 


Plural nouns—versus singular nouns—are comparatively straightforward to kind in Spanish. Most of the time it’s as easy as including “s” or “es” to the tip of a phrase (identical to in English!).

Nevertheless, there are conditions the place the spelling of a phrase could change or the phrase is saved the identical and solely the article modifications, and also you’ve acquired to keep in mind the gender of the phrase. 


The topic of a sentence (the phrase for no matter is performing an motion, often a noun) is usually positioned first in a sentence, adopted by a verb after which an object (if the verb truly has an object).

This construction typically modifications, although: the noun will be positioned otherwise in an effort to emphasize totally different components of the sentence, and also you’ll typically discover that adjectives come earlier than plenty of nouns. 

Prefixes and Suffixes 

Prefixes and suffixes are additions to the start and finish of a phrase (respectively) which modify its that means.

For instance, including the suffix -ito / -ita to the tip of a phrase conveys smallness or endearment. Should you take the phrase gato (cat) and add -ito it turns into gatito, which implies “little kitten/cat.”

Figuring out prefixes and suffixes will provide help to perceive the that means of a phrase even when it’s unfamiliar to you!



Pronouns are phrases that are used within the place of a noun (e.g. utilizing “he,” “she” or “they” rather than utilizing somebody’s precise title). 

Spanish nevertheless has a number of extra pronouns than we’re used to in English. There are five ways of saying “you”, and to make use of them we should take into account issues just like the formality of the situation and even what area of the world you’re in.

Private Pronouns

Private pronouns are brief phrases which exchange the names of individuals, issues or locations in an effort to make a sentence shorter and extra concise—for instance, as an alternative of repeating an individual’s title again and again in a dialog, we might substitute it with the phrase “they.” 

They’re break up into “topic pronouns” and “object pronouns,” relying on the function the phrase takes in a sentence.  

Topic Pronouns

The topic pronouns exchange the title of the topic in a sentence: whoever is performing the motion. Spanish has 12 topic pronouns, that are:

Object Pronouns

Subsequent we now have object pronouns, which exchange the “object” of the sentence: the individual or factor that receives the motion of a verb. We break up these into “direct object” and “oblique object.”

Direct object pronouns

Direct object pronouns obtain the motion of the verb straight. For instance, within the phrase su papá la quiere (her dad loves her), the direct object is “her,” as a result of she is receiving the motion of the verb “love”.

Spanish direct object pronouns are:

  • Me
  • Te
  • Lo
    , la
    him, her, it, you (formal)
  • Los
    , las
    them, you all (formal in Spain)
  • Os
    you all (casual in Spain)
  • Nos

Oblique object pronouns

Oblique object pronouns are not directly affected by the motion of the verb.

For instance, take into account the phrase le escribo una carta. (I write him a letter). On this case, le (her or him) is the oblique object, because the verb just isn’t straight affecting them.

They’re virtually the identical as direct object pronounssimply with lo and la turning into le, and los and las turning into les:

  • Me
  • Te
  • Le
    him, her, it, you (formal)
  • Les
    them, you all (formal in Spain)
  • Os
    you all (casual in Spain)
  • Nos

Possessive Pronouns

Like the remainder of the pronouns we’ve seen, possessive pronouns are additionally phrases which exchange nounsbut additionally point out possession.

They’re typically confused with possessive adjectives, that are totally different as a result of possessive adjectives merely describe nouns and don’t truly exchange them.  

Listed below are the possessive pronouns in Spanish:

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used to level out particular individuals or issues. They modify relying on the space of the speaker, and naturally the gender of no matter is being referred to.

Generally, although, you’ll end up in conditions the place you don’t truly know the gender of the item you’re referring to: in these instances, you’ll need to use neuter demonstrative pronouns.

Reflexive Pronouns

When the item of a verb refers back to the identical noun as the topic of that verb, we use reflexive pronouns. 

Listed below are the reflexive pronouns alongside their English translations:

  • Me
  • Te
      your self
  • Se
      himself, herself, themselves 
  • Se
    your self (formal), yourselves (formal in Spain)
  • Os
      yourselves (casual in Spain)
  • Nos

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are phrases or phrases which refer again to a noun that was used earlier in communication. In English, they’re typically phrases like “who,” “whose,” “that” and “which.” 

For instance, within the phrase “the meals that I purchased,” the relative pronoun is “that.”

The next phrases and phrases are used as relative pronouns in Spanish:

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are phrases which don’t truly confer with something particularly—that’s, they aren’t particular to any individual, quantity, or factor. In English we might use phrases like “something,” “all people,” “none,” “a number of” and “some.”

Listed below are a number of of widespread indefinite pronouns you’ll come throughout in Spanish:

Interrogative Pronouns

Lastly, we now have interrogative pronouns: these are pronouns that are used to ask questions (therefore the title “interrogative”). 

Listed below are among the commonest interrogative pronouns in Spanish:


An article is a phrase which identifies part of a speech as a noun, with out truly describing it.

It sounds difficult but it surely all is sensible while you see what the English equal can be: on this case, articles in English are “the,” “a” and “an.” For instance:

The child began to cry, so I gave him a bottle”

Articles may also be labeled as “particular” and “indefinite” articles, that are defined beneath. 

Particular Articles

The particular article is used when the noun being referred to is already identified to the speaker or reader. It refers to a selected, outlined object.

In Spanish it has 4 types, relying on the gender and variety of the noun in query:

Indefinite Articles

In distinction, particular articles are used when the noun being referred to is basic, or just isn’t identified to the speaker or reader. 

Like particular articles, indefinite articles in Spanish additionally replicate the gender and variety of the noun. These are:


Verbs are phrases used to explain an motion, state, or incidence.

Utilizing verbs in Spanish is a little more complicated than in English—the next part has a run down of an important issues it is best to know. 

Infinitive Verbs

An infinitive is the type of a verb which states nothing however an motion—that’s, they inform us nothing about who is definitely performing the motion, and when it’s being (or was) carried out.

The English equal can be once we use verbs with “to” in entrance, akin to: “to go,” “to sleep” or “to suppose.”

Whereas in English our infinitive verbs start with the phrase “to” in Spanish we determine them by their endings: -ar, -er and -ir

Verb teams

Spanish verbs are break up into three teams based mostly on whether or not they finish in -ar, -er, or -ir.

Every group is conjugated otherwise, so it’s necessary to know the place the verb belongs in an effort to conjugate them accordingly.

Verb Conjugation

Verb conjugation is what we name it when a verb is modified to replicate an individual, tense, quantity and temper.

In Spanish, we begin with the infinitive verb and modify its ending in keeping with who we’re speaking about and the way.

Let’s say that I need to say “I converse.” Listed below are the fundamental steps:

  1. Establish the verb you need to conjugate. On this case it could be hablar (“to talk”)
  2. Determine who’s performing the motion (aka the topic). On this case, I’m the topic
  3. Discover the suitable ending. Use a verb conjugation desk to seek out the ending that corresponds with “I” within the current tense. This will probably be -o
  4. Conjugate the verb. Take away -ar from hablar and add -o. This provides us hablo (“I converse.”).

Common and Irregular Verbs

Whereas most verbs in Spanish are common and so observe the same old conjugation sample, a big portion of them—42%, to be actual—are literally irregular verbs.

Which means that they (unhelpfully) don’t all the time observe commonplace conjugation patterns, so that you’ll must learn their conjugations individually!

Important Verbs

To study Spanish you’ll want to work smarter, not more durable.

So as an alternative of studying all the pieces you presumably can while you first begin out, stick with what’s going to get you essentially the most outcomes—you’ll want to study the essential, most common verbs earlier than you get into the more complex ones. 

Ser and Estar

Whether or not to make use of ser or estar (which each imply “to be”) might be one of the Googled questions by us Spanish learners. 

Normally, I wish to keep in mind that ser is for extra everlasting states, whereas estar is used for extra transient states. 

After all, it could be no enjoyable if the foundations had been that straightforward, so take a look at our submit for a full run down!

Verbs Like Gustar

Whereas verbs like gustar (to love) seem difficult at first, the excellent news is that if you happen to take a little bit of time to know them they actually do make sense. 

With these verbs the item of the sentence turns into the topic, and the topic turns into the oblique object.

For instance, to say “I such as you” in Spanish is me gustas—straight translated this is able to be one thing like “to me, you might be pleasing.”

With the verb gustar “you” turns into topic (the place it could usually be the item), and is due to this fact conjugated from gustar into gustas. “I” then turns into the oblique object (as an alternative of the topic), which necessitates the oblique object pronoun me.

Stem-Altering Verbs

Stem-changing verbs are verbs which don’t solely change their endings whereas being conjugated, their “stem”, or the start of the verb, additionally modifications. 

There are three essential forms of stem altering verbs:

  1. E to ie stem-changing verbs
  2. E to i stem-changing verbs
  3. O to ue stem-changing verbs

Pronominal Verbs

It is a kind of verb which requires a reflexive pronoun (the me, te, se and so forth. pronouns that I discussed earlier within the submit). They’re straightforward to determine as they finish in -se as an alternative of the common -ar, -er or -ir infinitive ending. 

There are a number of forms of pronominal verbs, however purely pronominal verbs can’t exist with no reflexive pronoun. 

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs are a sort of pronominal verb. They too finish in -se, and confer with an motion {that a} topic performs on itself—in distinction to an everyday verb, the place the topic performs the motion on somebody or one thing else. 

For instance:

Phrasal Verbs

Subsequent on the record of grammar phrases you by no means knew existed we now have phrasal verbs! These are verbs which truly change their that means while you add an adverb or preposition to them. 

They’re on the superior aspect, however studying them will provide help to to specific your self higher—and likewise make your Spanish sound fairly flash. 

Modal Verbs

These verbs point out meanings akin to probability, capability, suggestion, or recommendation. 

In English, these verbs embrace phrases like “can,” “would,” “ought to” or “would possibly.” Listed below are a number of widespread ones in Spanish:

Energetic and Passive Voice

The energetic voice is what we use to speak the overwhelming majority of the time. It’s a type of a verb through which the topic is performing the motion, whereas the passive voice is the place the topic undergoes the motion of the verb.

By contrasting these examples, it is best to get a greater thought of what they’re:

  • Energetic: You broke the glass
  • Passive: The glass was damaged by you

In Spanish, the passive voice is fashioned with the system topic + ser + previous participle.


You’re in all probability conscious what a tense is, however only for these of us who respect extra formal explanations: tense signifies the time of an motion in relation to the time of utterance.

There are 14 tenses to discover in Spanish, every with totally different conjugations relying on the topicso buckle up!

Current Tense

The current tense in Spanish is essentially the most fundamental tense, and what you’ll begin off studying. It’s used to specific actions which:

  • Are occurring now
  • Are habitually carried out
  • Typically exist

Current participle

The current participle comes after one other verb and expresses a steady motion. Consider them because the “-ing” phrases in English. 

To kind the current participle in Spanish, take away the -ar, -er and -ir from the infinitive verb and easily add -ando (for an -ar verb) and -iendo (for -er and -ir verbs). 

Previous Tense

At first look, the previous tense appears simply as easy as the current tensebesides that it’s truly not. 

There are a number of types of past tenses in Spanish, and we’ll clarify the principle ones beneath. 


This verb tense expresses an motion which occurred at a selected level prior to now. Particularly actions or occasions which:

  • Are accomplished
  • Occurred on particular occasions/dates or throughout a selected time interval
  • Have particular beginnings or endings
  • Came about in a sequence

Previous imperfect

In distinction, the previous imperfect expresses an motion prior to now which was ongoing or didn’t have an outlined starting/finish. Listed below are a few of its makes use of in Spanish:

  • Repeated or ordinary actions prior to now 
  • One thing that was in progress prior to now
  • Descriptions of individuals/issues prior to now
  • Individuals’s ages prior to now
  • Instances and dates prior to now 

Previous participle

The previous participle is a type of a verb used as a noun, an adjective, or to make “excellent tenses.”

For instance, take into account the sentence: I’ve eaten. “Eaten” is the previous participle of “to eat.”

To kind the previous participle in Spanish, we simply take away the infinitive ending (-ar, -er and -ir) and add -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er and -ir verbs).

Future Tense

To speak concerning the future in Spanish, we now have a number of choices—which fortunately have some fairly shut equivalents in English. Word that the primary two choices are mostly used.

Conditional Tense

The conditional tense is extremely helpful for dialog and for forming superior phrases, and as soon as I found it it opened up an entire new world of expressing myself. 

In layman’s phrases, the conditional signifies levels of risk within the current, future and previous—like once we’re speaking about one thing which may occur sooner or later, one thing that didn’t occur prior to now or one thing that can in all probability by no means occur.

Excellent Tense

This tense is used to speak about actions or occasions which have occurred within the latest previous, began prior to now and continues to the current day, or when one thing has occurred a sure variety of occasions. For instance: 

“They have been ready for you”

In Spanish it’s fashioned through the use of the verb haber (to have) and the previous participle.

Current excellent 

Current excellent is fashioned by conjugating haber (to have) within the current tense, and pairing it with the previous participle. 

He querido verte.
(I’ve wished to see you)

Future excellent

Future excellent is fashioned by conjugating haber (to have) within the—you guessed it—future tense, and pairing it with the previous participle. 

¿Habrás terminado mañana?
(Will you could have completed tomorrow?)

Pluperfect Tense

The pluperfect tense has a number of makes use of, the principle one being to point that an motion occurred earlier than one other motion prior to now. 

We kind it by conjugating haber (to have) prior to now imperfect tense, and once more, pairing it with the previous participle. 

Habías dicho que sí.
(You had stated sure)

Progressive Tense

Progressive is a sort of tense that expresses an incomplete motion at a selected time. 

As a way to kind the progressive tense in Spanish, we use the system estar (to be) + current participle (lastly, we’re transferring away from the previous participle!). 

Estoy saliendo.
(I’m leaving)

Current progressive 

The current progressive tense is fairly self explanatory: it’s a progressive tense, used within the current.

Following the identical system as above, we conjugate estar within the current tense and add the current participle. 

Estamos intentando.
(We’re making an attempt)

Previous progressive

Once more, previous progressive is a progressive tense which is used prior to now. 

Following the identical system estar + current participle, we conjugate estar prior to now imperfect tense and add the current participle. 

Estábamos intentando.
(We had been making an attempt)


Temper in Spanish grammar isn’t what it first seems—it doesn’t must do along with your way of thinking. 

Within the context of grammar, it’s a class of verb kind which expresses whether or not one thing is:

  1. A truth (indicative temper)
  2. A situation (subjunctive temper) 
  3. A command (crucial temper)

Verb conjugations change relying on which temper you’re talking in, so it’s necessary to know when and the right way to use every one.

Indicative Temper

The indicative temper is the temper we use most frequently to speak. Merely put, it’s used to specific something that we take into account to be truth.

Subjunctive Temper

The subjunctive temper will be trickier to know and use. That is due partly to the truth that the subjunctive in English is fairly obscure, so we aren’t very accustomed to it. 

The place the indicative temper is goal, the subjunctive is subjective—it’s used to specific one thing that’s wished, imagined or potential.

Crucial Temper

The crucial temper is used to kind instructions or requests. 

Whereas ordering somebody round could sound rude, you’d be shocked how typically this temper comes up in our day after day lives: e.g. “come right here” or “take the subsequent proper flip.” 

Adverse instructions

In distinction to affirmative instructions (the place you inform somebody/one thing to do one thing), damaging instructions are the place you inform somebody/one thing not to do one thing. 

Along with the no (no) that you just’ll add to the beginning of the verb, the verb itself can be conjugated otherwise—so it pays to study the conjugations for each affirmative and damaging instructions. 


You might keep in mind out of your elementary faculty days that adjectives are “describing words.” Whereas that is true, extra formally they’re outlined as “a phrase which names an attribute of a noun.” 

Like many issues in Spanish, adjectives often must replicate the quantity and gender of the noun (or pronoun) it’s describing. Let’s have a deeper take a look at them.






Adjective Endings

  • Adjectives that finish in –o make up nearly all of adjectives in Spanish. They’ve 4 potential endings, every which displays gender and quantity 
    • -o — masculine singular
    • -os masculine plural
    • -a female singular
    • -as female plural
  • Adjectives that finish in -e or -ista don’t change for gender, just for quantity:
    • -e — masculine/female singular
    • -es — masculine/female plural
    • -ista — masculine/female singular
    • istas — masculine/female plural
  • Adjectives that finish in a consonant additionally don’t change for gender, just for quantity. To vary these adjectives from singular to plural we often simply add -es to the tip, nevertheless there are a number of exceptions to this rule

Adjective Placement

You might already bear in mind that adjectives are positioned otherwise in Spanish than in English: nearly all of the time, the adjective is positioned after the noun it modifies. 

However there are a few exceptions, so pay attention to these instances the place the adjective truly goes in entrance:

  • Correct nouns
  • Nouns/relations that we solely have certainly one of
  • Inherent qualities which can be all the time related to that noun
  • While you already know the noun that the adjective is referencing

Adjective Clauses

You realize we’re getting deep once we begin speaking about clauses. 

A clause is a gaggle of phrases with a topic and a verb. Within the case of an adjective clause, it’s primarily a gaggle of phrases—together with a topic and a verb—which capabilities a lot the identical as an everyday adjective. 

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives are adjectives which point out a relationship of possession—whether or not it’s strict possession or different forms of possession to a lesser diploma. 

They’re phrases like “my,” “mine,” “ours” and “theirs.”

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

These two types of adjectives assist describe relationships between two (or extra) objects.

Comparative adjectives examine the standard of two issues (“she is taller than him”), whereas a superlative expresses the best diploma of the standard (“she is the tallest“).

Demonstrative Adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives determine the relative place of somebody or one thing in time or house. 

Demonstrative adjectives in Spanish categorical three forms of distance:

  • Este — this
  • Ese — that
  • Aquel — that (over there)

And since they’re adjectives—don’t neglect that they’ll change to replicate quantity and gender!

Adjectives as Nouns

By now we all know what an adjective is, and what a noun is. However what about utilizing an adjective as a noun?

There are a few ways in which adjectives will be altered to perform as a noun:

1. Including an article

2. Modifying an adjective with a demonstrative adjective

3. Utilizing the article lo

4. Utilizing the private a

Relative Adjectives

These are adjectives which present relation in a sentence—therefore the nomenclature. They introduce new details about one thing or somebody that has been beforehand talked about within the type of a relative clause. 

For instance, in English we use the phrase “whose.” In Spanish, we might use cuyo, cuya, cuyos and cuyas (relying on the gender and variety of no matter you’re referring to).


Adverbs are a phrase or phrase which modifies different phrases in a sentence (often an adjective, verb or one other adverb) to additional describe particulars akin to place, time, method or diploma. 

As a result of they don’t modify nouns, adverbs don’t change in keeping with gender or quantity like different lessons of phrases do—that’s one much less factor to fret about, not less than!

Sorts of Adverbs

Adverbs will be positioned into a number of classes relying on the type of data they supply. Let’s take a look on the essential ones and a few examples:

  • Adverbs of place give details about a spot or location that one thing is going on, answering the query “the place?”. For instance aquí (right here) and cerca (shut)
  • Adverbs of frequency describe how typically an motion is carried out. For instance a veces (typically) and siempre (all the time)
  • Adverbs of method categorical the best way through which an motion is carried out by answering “how?” or “in what approach?”. For instance juntos (collectively) and bien (nicely)
  • Adverbs of diploma modify adjectives, and reply the query “how a lot/many?”. For instance mucho (a lot), peor (worse)
  • Adverbs of time because the title suggests, these adverbs describe the time and length of one thing. They reply questions like “when?” and “how lengthy?”. For instance ya (already) and pronto (quickly)

Adverb Placement

Adverbs in Spanish are often positioned both proper earlier than or proper after the phrase they’re modifying, and the kind of phrase determines this placement. As a basic rule, we are able to assume that they’re often:

  • Positioned after verbs
  • Positioned earlier than adjectives
  • Versatile if modifying the that means of a sentence

Adverb Endings

Many adverbs in Spanish finish in -mente, which is just like the equal of phrases ending in “-ly” in English (like “slowly,” “shortly,” or “often”).

We will kind an adverb through the use of virtually any singular female adjective and including -mente. 

Rápida (fast, fem. sing.) + –mente = rápidamente (shortly)


Prepositions play an enormous function within the that means of sentences, however are sometimes missed by these finding out Spanish. 

Prepositions are phrases—or a gaggle of phrases—used earlier than nouns, pronouns or noun phrases to hyperlink them to different phrases in a sentence.

They impart issues like course, time, location, spatial relationship, or introduce an object. 

Prepositions of Place

These prepositions describe the place of one thing (or somebody) in relation to one thing else. There are a number of to study, however listed here are among the commonest ones to get you began:

The Private A

Even after a few years of studying Spanish, the “private a” nonetheless journeys me up a bit—in all probability as a result of there isn’t a equal in English.

It’s a preposition that’s positioned between the verb and the direct object of a sentence when the direct object is an individual or a pet. It doesn’t translate to something, however we have to use it nonetheless!

Llamo a mi novio
— I name my boyfriend

Por and Para

Like ser and estar, whether or not it is best to use por or para is one other nice conundrum of the Spanish learner.

They each loosely translate to “for”—nevertheless they’re fairly versatile of their meanings—so it may be fairly difficult determining when to use one over the other.

Listed below are some fundamental factors to recollect:

  • Por is used to imply “by” somebody, whereas para is “for” somebody

  • Por is used for cause, whereas para is for function
  • Por is for touring round or by someplace, para is for the vacation spot

Verbs and Prepositions

There are an entire lot of Spanish verbs which both have to be used with a preposition, or change their meanings when paired with a preposition.

Sadly there isn’t a selected rule that can assist you study them—you’ll have to select them up as you employ them!

Listed below are a few widespread examples:


Conjunctions are phrases used to attach different phrases and sentences, and so they’ll provide help to bridge from newbie to intermediate and superior by permitting you to make extra complicated sentences. 

Let’s check out among the commonest Spanish conjunctions:

  • Y — and
  • O or
  • Pero — however, but
  • Aunque — although, although, however
  • Para que — in order that, so, in an effort to/for
  • Porque — as a result of
  • Así que — so
  • Si — if

They appear fundamental, however don’t underestimate them—you’d be shocked what figuring out them will do to your Spanish!


A contraction is a shortened model of a phrase or phrase, created by the omission of letters and sounds. 

In English you’ll see contractions with an apostrophe: “I’m” (from I’m), “couldn’t” (from couldn’t), “you’ll” (from you’ll). 

I’m joyful to inform you that in Spanish, there are solely two contractions to recollect:

1. A + el = al

2. De + el = del


So that you’ve realized a bunch of Spanish phrases, now you’ll want to string them collectively to make a coherent sentence—fortunately, it’s not tremendous difficult! 

Let’s take a look at among the essential parts of sentences in Spanish.

Sentence Construction

The sentence construction in Spanish often follows the identical system we use for English:

Topic + verb + object

It will be nice if we might simply say it’s the identical as in English and go away it there, however there a few different necessary factors concerning sentence construction:

  • It’s not all the time essential so as to add a topic (like we should do in English)
  • Pronouns are positioned straight earlier than the verb, not after it
  • The verb can typically be positioned in entrance of the topic


Negation is the place we insert a phrase or phrase to specific the alternative that means of a phrase or sentence.

In Spanish, it’s often as easy as including no earlier than the verb in a sentence.

No quiero irme. (I don’t need to go).

It will get a bit trickier in relation to the “double damaging,” which is taken into account incorrect (or non-standard) in English however is used typically in right Spanish.

We do that through the use of “damaging phrases”—akin to nada (nothing) or nunca (by no means)—both on their very own or along with no. 

1. Adverse phrase used alone earlier than the verb
Nunca veo películas. (I by no means watch motion pictures).

2. No earlier than the verb and damaging phrase after the verb
No veo películas nunca. (I by no means watch motion pictures).

Transition Phrases

Transition phrases are straightforward to confuse with conjunctions. The distinction is that transition phrases point out the relationship between sentences or paragraphs, and eradicating them gained’t truly have an effect on grammatical correctness. 

There are a ton of various varieties for varied conditions—akin to for explanations, outcomes, emphasis and summaries—and figuring out them will actually assist your Spanish circulation. 

Belief me, take a while to study them and also you’ll thank me later!


We use a selected kind of language to match and distinction issues, whether or not you notice it or not. Listed below are some formulation for making easy comparisons in Spanish:

  • To check two issues: más/menos + adjective + que
  • To check nouns: más/menos + noun + que
  • To check numbers: más/menos + de + quantity
  • To explain a distinction in how one thing is finished: más/menos + adverb + que 

Try the submit beneath to learn how to make use of superlatives and make comparisons of equality!

Reported Speech 

You would possibly truly reside your entire life as a Spanish learner and by no means come throughout this time period, however since we’re right here we could as nicely get the run-down. 

Reported speech is a sort of speech that tells you what somebody stated, however doesn’t truly use the individual’s phrases. 

Mi hermana dice que está cansada.
(My sister says she is drained).

To make use of any such speech you’ll have to study “reporting” or “communication” verbs, akin to decir (to say, to inform), querer saber (to need to know) and pedir (to ask)


Studying to ask questions in Spanish is tremendous necessary—in reality, you could possibly argue that it’s one of the necessary issues to study! 

Thankfully it’s comparatively easy, particularly as a result of in Spanish we don’t want to make use of auxiliary verbs (like “do” or “does”). Typically a query mark and a rising intonation will just do nice, however we are able to additionally make the most of “query phrases” to higher elicit data.

Query Phrases

Whereas they aren’t all the time important, we do typically want “query phrases” to kind questions. 

We truly lined many of those phrases earlier beneath “Interrogative Pronouns,” however these phrases are so necessary that it gained’t damage to provide this record one other learn! 

Por Qué v Porque

Should you used to suppose it was sufficient to know the distinction between por qué and porque, you’re not alone (and, sadly, you’re additionally incorrect).  

Spanish is already bursting with pors and ques, however we’re going so as to add some variations to the record within the type of por qué, por que, porqué and porque. 

Don’t get too anxious, although—listed here are their fundamental meanings in a nutshell:

Query Marks

Little question you’ve seen the curious the wrong way up query mark that’s distinctive to the Spanish language. 

There’s no secret to it—this inverted query mark is used together with an everyday query mark to point a query, identical to in English. If a sentence is lengthy, simply use the query marks instantly earlier than the query:

No he probado jamón serrano, ¿cómo es(I haven’t tried jamón, what’s it like?)

It’s used largely in formal settings nowadays, so that you undoubtedly don’t fear about it if you happen to’re chatting along with your Spanish-speaking mates on WhatsApp!

Exclamations and Interjections

Exclamations and interjections are each used to specific sturdy emotions and feelings.

An exclamation is often a phrase or clause used with exclamation marks, whereas interjections are often single phrases and are used with commas and query marks along with exclamation marks.

Interjections may also be sounds, and are grammatically unrelated to the sentence. 

These not solely allow you to categorical emotion in only a phrase or two, they present that you just perceive what’s occurring and so they’ll make you sound actually fluent!

Try the posts beneath to study some actually helpful ones. 

It would really feel such as you’re going again to elementary faculty by studying numbers from scratch once more, but it surely’s nicely value your whereas! You’ll have to study numbers in Spanish for all the pieces from telling the time to creating transactions. 

Let’s take a look at numbers one to 10:

After which some ordinal numbers:

Writing Mechanics

Writing mechanics are simply guidelines of a written language—issues like punctuation, capitalization, spelling and abbreviations. 

You’ll have already picked up on a pair (such because the quirky “the wrong way up” query mark), however we’re going to go over a number of variations between Spanish and English which can be necessary to know. 


For essentially the most half punctuation is fairly easy in Spanish. Should you’re uncertain about one thing can often assume that it’s the identical as in English, however listed here are the principle issues to look out for:

  • Query marks. As talked about earlier, in additional formal writing you’ll want to add an inverted query mark on the starting of the query in addition to the tip.
  • Exclamation marks. Equally, inverted exclamation factors are additionally used at the start and finish of the exclaimed phrase or phrase in Spanish. 
  • Writing numbers. There are a number of variations between English and Spanish in relation to writing numbers. In Spanish, when writing numbers with 4 or much less numerals, the numerals are written collectively. For instance, the place in English we might write “4,500,” in Spanish you’ll see “4500.”

    If there are greater than 4 numerals in a quantity, an area is meant for use to separate the teams of numerals—as an alternative of the comma which we might use in English. For instance, in English we might write “1,500,00,” in Spanish the identical quantity can be written as “1 500 000.” In saying this, it’s possible you’ll nicely see numbers of this dimension written as “1.500.000” in lots of locations.

    The final level to recollect is that in lots of Spanish-speaking nations it’s widespread to see a comma used as a decimal separator, as an alternative of a interval like in English. For instance the quantity “20.50” in English is commonly written in Spanish as “20,50.” 

  • Writing scripts/dialogue. You’ll in all probability come throughout this distinction whereas studying extra so than whereas writing, and that’s the usage of the em-dash (—) in dialogue as an alternative of speech marks. Right here’s an thought of what you would possibly see:

    —¡Hola! —dijo la señora. (“Hi there!” stated the girl).
    —Hola, ¿cómo está? —contestó el niño. (“Hi there, how are you?” answered the boy).


Spanish doesn’t capitalize phrases as typically as we do in English, so sadly we are able to’t apply the identical guidelines!

The next forms of phrases are not capitalized in Spanish except it’s the primary phrase in a sentence:

  • Months and days of the week
  • E book and film titles (solely the primary phrase is capitalized)
  • Locations (excluding nations and cities)
  • Religions
  • Languages
  • Nationalities
  • The private pronoun yo (I)


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