Spanish Grammar List: A Complete Guide to 45 Basic Spanish Grammar Terms



Consider this post your brand-new buddy for Spanish grammar terms.

Or one of those bookmarked pages you have on your browser that you examine occasionally.

Whenever you see an unusual Spanish grammar term you do not comprehend, pertain to this post. Or print it out and keep it with your research study products– whatever makes you pleased.

Best of all, unless you’re particularly studying for a grammar test, you do not require to discover these words by heart. Simply have them close, since they will certainly be available in useful.


45 Must-Know Spanish Grammar Terms

The following Spanish terms will be bought alphabetically (in Spanish). For each you’ll see a brief meaning and an example revealing the idea in usage.

1. Acento
( Accent mark/stress)

The Spanish word acento has 2 primary significances. On one hand, it’s the written accent mark we find in some words (likewise referred to as tilde
). On the other hand, it indicates “tension,” as in the method a syllable (or a word) is pronounced with higher force.

No te olvides de poner el acento
/ la tilde.

( Don’t forget to compose the accent mark.)

And listed below in strong you’ll see which syllables are stressed out (tienen acento
in spoken Spanish:

Me llamo Pedro.

( My name is Pedro.)

2. Adjetivo
( Adjective)

As in English, Spanish adjectives are words that are utilized to explain locations, individuals and things. You’ll require to keep in mind

Acabo de comprarme un coche rojo muy rápido.

if you desire to utilize them appropriately in Spanish!

( I have actually simply purchased a really quick red vehicle.) Adjetivo demostrativo

( Demonstrative adjective)

Este perro es mío y aquel es tuyo.

Demonstrative adjectives are a set of words we utilize to recognize the things, locations or individuals we are describing (i.e., this, that, these, those, and so on).

( This pet dog is mine which one over there is yours.) Adverbio 4.

Adverbs are words that modify( Adverb)

Esa chica habla inglés muy bien.

a verb, an adjective, a sentence or another adverb. They respond to the concern “How?”

( That lady speaks English extremely well.) Agente

( Agent)

El niño lanzó la pelota.

The representative is the thing, individual or animal performing the action of the verb. It’s usually the topic (see listed below) of the sentence, however it can likewise appear in passive structures (see the 2nd example listed below), usually in the type of a by-phrase.
( The young boy tossed the ball.)

La pelota fue lanzada por el niño.

The topic and the representative are the very same.
( The ball was tossed by the young boy.)

The representative is not the topic. Artículo

( Article) Articles are a set of words that precede the noun and suggest whether it’s currently understood. We have certain short articles ( el/la/los/ las) and indefinite short articles ( un/una/unos/ unas)

Spanish articles can be a bit of a headache sometimes Although the principle is comparable in Spanish and in English,

María tiene un hermano. El hermano de María es muy guapo.

, so you ‘d much better keep an eye out for them!

El ordenador azul es más rápido.

( María has a sibling. María’s bro is extremely good-looking.)

( The blue computer system is much faster.) Comparativo

( Comparative)We use the comparative form for comparisons The relative is the type of an adjective or adverb that we utilize when we wish to reveal basically degree, quality or quantity.

Soy más alto que tú.


( I’m taller than you.) Complemento directo 8.Objeto directo


Direct objects ( Direct things)

Necesito unas tijeras nuevas.

are individuals, locations or things impacted straight by the action of the verb. They usually respond to the concerns “What?” or “Who?”
( I require a brand-new set of scissors.) What

Ayer vi a tu hermano.

do I require? A brand-new set of scissors.
( I saw your bro the other day.) Who

did I see the other day? Your bro. Complemento indirecto 9.Objeto indirecto


(Indirect things)indirect objects Simply put,

are the things, animals or individuals impacted by the action of the verb. You’ll likely require the prepositions “to” or “for” to render this in English. In Spanish, nevertheless, you’re probably to discover the preposition a

Antonio les ha comprado caramelos a los niños.

with indirect items. In case of doubt, keep in mind to ask “To/For what?” or “To/For whom?” for the verb.

( Antonio has actually purchased sweet for the kids.)

What has he purchased? Sweet (= direct things). He purchased sweet for whom

? For the kids (= indirect things). Condicional

( Conditional tense)the conditional tense expresses what would happen As its name suggests, [infinitive] if a specific condition were satisfied. While in English you usually utilize “would” +

, in Spanish you require to conjugate the verbs in the conditional tense.

Me gustaría ser rico.

You’ll likewise utilize the conditional tense when discussing the future in reported speech (see listed below), when making desires and when developing conditional sentences.

Dijo que llegaría tarde.

( I want to be abundant.)– Wish

Si tuviera dinero, compraría una casa.

( He stated he would be late.)– Reported speech

( If I had cash, I would purchase a home.)– Conditional sentence Concordancia

( Concordance/agreement) Concordanciathe agreement is

El gato negro siguió a la niña.

in between particular parts of the sentence. In Spanish, there is required arrangement in between the noun and its adjective, and in between the subject and the verb.

( The black feline followed the lady.) The noun gato and its adjective negro

Mis vecinos fueron a la playa.

are both manly particular.

( My next-door neighbors went to the beach.) The third-person plural topic mis vecinos matches the third-person plural verb fueron


( Conjugation)-ar The conjugation is essentially the method we categorize verbs in Spanish. There are 3 conjugations (-er, -ir and

), and all routine verbs within the very same conjugation are conjugated in the very same method.

Me gusta cantar.

You’ve most likely heard this word utilized more frequently for its other significance, though: the various types of a verb (each type showing individual, tense and state of mind).

( I like singing.) Gusta: – ar
, 3rd individual particular, present tense, a sign. Cantar: – ar

Mi hermana no come verduras.

, infinitive.

( My sis does not consume veggies.) Come: – er

Vosotros queríais que ella viniera a la fiesta.

, 3rd individual particular, present tense, a sign.

( You desired her to come to the celebration.) Queríais: – er
, 2nd individual plural, imperfect, a sign. Viniera: – ir

, 3rd individual particular, imperfect, subjunctive. Conjunción

Conjunctions are words used to join ( Conjunction)

Me gustan los perros y los gatos.

sentences, expressions and other words. As in English, there are various groups of combinations categorized by significance and by function.

Me gustan los perros pero no los gatos.

( I like felines and canines.)

( I like canines, however not felines.) Contracción

A contraction is the fusion of two words into one ( Contraction) While we have a great deal of them in English, Spanish just has 2 contractions: al( a + el) and del( de + el)

Queremos ir al parque.

Acabo de llegar del cine.

( We wish to go to the park.)

( I simply returned from the movie theater.) Copulativo
15. [verb] (Copulative

)a specific kind of verb that links A copulative verb is the based on the adjective or noun that explains it. The most typical Spanish copulas are ser, estar (to be) and parecer

Mi hermano está cansado.

(to appear, to appear like).

Esa nube parece un dragón.

( My bro is tired.)

( That cloud appears like a dragon.) Contable 16.Incontable


Countable nouns are those that can be counted (Countable/Uncountable)

(like one apple, 2 apples, 3 apples …), can take the indefinite post and can be preceded by a number.

Uncountable nouns, on the other hand, can not be counted (like “water”, “salt,” “cash,” “milk”), do decline the indefinite post and can not be preceded by a number. For those of you who are stating “But you can count cash!,” this note is for you: Words like “bottle,” “grain,” “dollar” and “gallon” are all countable nouns (i.e., 3 bottles of water, 50 grains of salt, 40 dollars and 4 gallons of milk)– however vast nouns alone can not be preceded by a number: 40 cash, 50 salts

quantifiers And you can obviously usage such as mucho (a great deal of), poco (little), suficiente

Tengo tres casas.

(enough), and so on in front of nouns.

Tienes mucho dinero.

( I have 3 homes.)

No tengo suficiente azúcar.

( You have a great deal of cash.)

( I do not have adequate sugar.) Diminutivos

( Diminutives)diminutive suffix Diminutives are words that reveal little size, love or lower value. In order to form a small, you require to include a

Tu casita me gusta mucho.

to the initial word in Spanish.

( I like your little home a lot.) Estilo directo 18.Estilo indirecto


( Direct speech/Reported speech)Indirect or reported speech Direct speech describes the real words an individual is saying or that they’re composing.

“Te amo,” me dijo.

is the report of what another person has actually stated.

Me dijo que me amaba.

(” I like you,” he stated.)– Direct

( He informed me he liked me.)– Reported Futuro

( Future tense)the future tense We utilize

Te llamaré cuando llegue a casa.

to suggest that something will occur in the future. When I show up house.),

( I will call you Género ( You will need to take the test once again.) 20.

feminine, masculine or neuter( Gender)

El vaso blanco es muy bonito.

Gender describes the truth that a noun, pronoun, adjective or post can be

La niña está avergonzada.

(neuter gender just uses to pronouns).

( The white glass is extremely quite.)– Masculine Gerundio
( The lady is ashamed.)– Feminine

21. ( Gerund: -ing type of a verb) The Spanish gerundio is an impersonal type of the verb which ends in – ando or–

Estoy comiendo pizza.


Estaba volviendo de la escuela cuando sucedió.

, and is utilized to reveal a constant action.

( I am consuming pizza.) When it occurred.),

( He was coming back from schooluse the imperative 22.


( Imperative)

Dile a mamá que compre naranjas.

The vital is among 3 Spanish state of minds (see listed below). We

to provide orders. Imperfecto ( Give it to me.)Pretérito
( Tell Mom to purchase oranges.)

23.the two main past tenses in Spanish

El hombre fumaba.


El hombre cerró la puerta.

The imperfect and the preterite are

While the imperfect is utilized to reveal uncompleted actions, the preterite is utilized for finished ones. Indicativo ( The male was smoking cigarettes.)– Imperfect( The male closed the door.)– Preterite


Tengo un hermano.

( Indicative) Infinitivo
The a sign is among 3 Spanish state of minds (see listed below). We utilize the a sign to reveal realities.

( I have a sibling.)the base form of a verb 25.

Me gusta correr.

( Infinitive)

Quiero comprar un coche.

The infinitive is

Bear in mind that in Spanish, each infinitive comes from among 3 conjugations (types). Interjección
( I like to run.)

Interjections are words and sounds speakers use in order to express surprise, emotions, pain( I wish to purchase a vehicle.)

¡Ay! ¡Me duele mucho!


¡Eh! ¡Por ahí no!

( Interjection)

, and so on. Interjections are usually a response to another person’s deeds or words, or a response to something we have actually seen. Intransitivo ( Ouch! It harms a lot!)Transitivo
( Hey! Not that method!)

An intransitive verb 27.

La chica está sonriendo.

/ (Intransitive/Transitive) is a verb that can not take a direct things. A transitive verb is a verb that can be utilized with a direct things.

Mamá me dio dinero.

( The lady is smiling.)– Sonreír is intransitive.

( Mom provided me cash.)– Irregular DarRegular
is transitive.

28.irregular verbs

Ayer comí pizza.


Ayer no fui a la escuela.

Regular verbs are those that follow a particular pattern of conjugation. On the other hand,

are those that do not follow stated pattern. Modo
( I consumed pizza the other day.)– Regular

( I didn’t go to school the other day.)– Irregularused to express the speaker’s attitude 29.

Me llamo Franco.

( Mood) Moods are sets of verb types that are with regard to the action revealed by the verb. Spanish has 3 state of minds: a sign, vital and subjunctive.

No quiero que llegues tarde.

( My name is Franco.)– Me llamo is a sign.( I do not desire you to show up late.)– Quiero

Dame un abrazo.

is a sign, while llegues is subjunctive.

( Give me a hug.)– Nombre
Dame Sustantivo
is vital.

30. different types of nouns,

Mi perro es mi mejor amigo.

( Noun) Nouns are words that describe things, individuals, locations, concepts, and so on. There are , the 2 primary types are typical nouns and appropriate nouns.( My pet dog is my buddy.)– Both perro

Pedro es un hombre muy inteligente.

and amigo prevail nouns.( Pedro is a really smart male.)– Pedro

is an appropriate noun, while Número

is a typical noun.more than one (plural) 31.

Mi hermano tiene un coche.

( Number)

Mi hermano tiene dos coches.

Number suggests if the individual, animal, thing, and so on we are discussing is simply one (particular) or

. Oración
( My bro has a vehicle.)– Singular

A sentence is a group of words( My bro has 2 cars and trucks.)– Plural

Está lloviendo.


¿Quieres venir conmigo?

( Sentence)


that together reveal a command, a declaration or a concern.

( It’s drizzling.)– Statement Persona
( Do you wish to include me?)– Question

( Shut up!)– Command

Yo no soy francés.


te llamas Miguel.

( Person)

Nosotros somos felices.

Person describes each and every individual pronoun (see listed below) and forms taken by the verb. There are 3 in the particular (very first individual, 2nd individual, 3rd individual) and 3 in the plural.

( I am not French.)– First individual particular Posesivos
( Your name is Miguel.)– Second individual particular

( We more than happy.)– First individual plural

Su hermano es jardinero.


Este libro es mío.

( Possessives)

Possessives are pronouns and adjectives we utilize to reveal ownership. Predicado
( His bro is a garden enthusiast.)

The predicate( This book is mine.)

El ordenador funciona perfectamente bien.


( Predicate) Preposición
is the part of a sentence which contains the verb and provides info about the topic.

Prepositions are invariable words( The computer system works completely great.)

Voy a comprar la casa de Mateo.


Me gusta viajar en tren.

( Preposition)

Esto es para ti.

that can be utilized prior to a noun or pronoun to suggest location, time, position, and so on

( I am going to purchase Mateo’s home.) Presente simple
( I like taking a trip by train.)

( This is for you.)habitual or repetitive actions 37.

Tengo mucha sed.

( Present easy)

Los domingos voy a la iglesia.

This is the tense utilized in Spanish to speak about

El Sol es una estrella.

, axioms and, in some cases, actions that are happening at the minute of speaking.

( I am extremely thirsty.) Pretérito perfecto ( I go to church on Sundays.) Pretérito perfecto compuesto
( The sun is a star.)

38.related to the present

Aún no he ido a la escuela.

( Present best)

This tense is utilized to explain actions that occurred in the past however are still in some way Pretérito pluscuamperfecto

This tense is used to describe an action that took place before another( I have not gone to school yet.)

Cuando llegué, mamá ya se había ido.


( Past best) Pronombre
past, finished action.

Pronouns are words that substitute the noun or the noun phrase( When I showed up, Mom had actually currently left.)

Me gusta este.


El libro es tuyo.

( Pronoun)

Dame un abrazo.

in a sentence. There are various kinds of pronouns both in Spanish and in English.

( I like this one.) Subjuntivo
( The book is yours.)

( Give me a hug.)one of the three Spanish moods 41.

No necesito que vengas.

( Subjunctive)

This is Sujeto
, and most likely the most challenging one for native English speakers. It’s utilized to reveal doubt, unpredictability, hypotheses, and so on

( I do not require you to come.)

Mi amigo me compró un pastel para mi cumpleaños.


( Subject) Superlativo
The topic is the noun, pronoun or noun expression that signifies the individual, animal or thing that carries out the action of the verb.

( My pal purchased me a cake for my birthday.)highest or lowest degree 43.

Soy el más alto de la clase.

( Superlative)

The superlative is the type of an adjective or an adverb that reveals its Verbo

( I’m the highest in the class.)

Estoy viendo una película.


Ana se duchó hace una hora.

( Verb)

Verbs are the words that reveal actions and states in sentences. Verbs are frequently divided into irregular and routine, there are some other types you need to understand. Voz activa ( I am viewing a film.)Voz pasiva
( Ana showered an hour earlier.)

45.In the passive voice

Mi jefe despidió a Laura.

(Active voice/Passive voice)

Laura fue despedida.

In the active voice, the topic of the sentence carries out the action of the verb.

, the topic does not carry out the action however is impacted by it.

( My manager fired Laura.)– Active voice

( Laura was fired.)– Passive voice

How to Review Spanish Grammar Concepts and terms

Now you understand what these standard grammar terms imply. Of course, you likewise have to discover how they work!

The finest method to actually remember these ideas is by regularly noting them within genuine examples, total with context. You can do this in lots of methods with various resources.FluentU You can check out Spanish texts and thoroughly evaluate how whatever within an expression interacts. Keep in mind which word plays what function (in Spanish) and take down notes concerning your observations, whether it’s about the word order, conjugations etc.

You can likewise listen to audio clips or see videos of Spanish speakers and dissect the sentences you hear into their grammatical parts. This can be done more quickly with subtitles, particularly if the speech gets a little too quick or consists of innovative Spanish. You can discover online videos on sites like YouTube, though it’s not constantly ensured that you’ll get precise captions.

Another resource for practicing grammar with videos is the language discovering program

It gears up brief genuine Spanish videos with interactive subtitles that offer contextual word translations, grammar info and example sentences. You can then evaluate what you discover with flashcards and customized tests.

There are likewise other online resources, such as fast grammar worksheets and tests, that can function as terrific practice product. When it comes to grammar,

Every language student has a bit of stress and anxiety. With continuous direct exposure and practice, the ideas will end up being 2nd nature. When it comes to grammar research studies, go at your own rate!

¡Buena suerte!

(Good luck!)(*) Download:(*)
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Francisco J. Vare enjoys mentor and discussing grammar. He’s a happy language geek, and you’ll usually discover him discovering languages, teaching trainees or reading. He’s been composing for FluentU for several years and is among their personnel authors. (*).


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