Varieties of Mung Beans and Irrigation Management

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Welcome to the world of Summer Green Gram Cultivation, where farming satisfies clinical accuracy for ideal yield. Green gram, clinically referred to as Vigna radiata, is a warm-season vegetable that prospers in the summer season heat. Cultivating this flexible crop needs a nuanced technique, thinking about elements like soil water, temperature level, and structure management. In this blog site, we’ll look into the complexities of Summer Green Gram growing, checking out tested techniques to improve efficiency.

Summer Green Gram Cultivation

Summer Green Gram Cultivation

Introduction to Summer Green Gram Cultivation

Green gram, mung bean or moong, is a leguminous crop that is extensively cultivated in India and other Asian nations. Green gram provides protein, vitamin, fiber, and iron C and has lots of health advantages. Green gram can be taken in as entire grains, divided pulses, sprouts, or flour. Green gram is likewise utilized as a green manure crop, as it can repair climatic nitrogen and enhance soil fertility. Green gram is a short-duration crop that can fit well in lots of cropping systems.

Climate and Soil Requirements for Green Gram Cultivation

Green gram can grow in a vast array of weather conditions, however it chooses damp and warm weather condition with a temperature level variety of 25 ° C to 35 ° C. It can endure moderate rains of 85 to 100 cm, well dispersed throughout its growing duration of 100 days. Waterlogging and cloudy weather condition are damaging to the crop. Green gram can be grown in both the kharif and summer season seasons in North India and the rabi season in South India.

Green gram can be grown on a various kinds of soils, from sandy loam to black cotton soils, having excellent drain capability. Saline, alkaline soils are not ideal for green gram growing. Green gram is really conscious waterlogging conditions. The maximum soil pH for green gram growing is 6 to 7.

Varieties of Green Gram Suitable for Summer Cultivation

RUM-1: This is a high-yielding range established by Rajasthan Agricultural University. It has a period of 65 to 70 days and produces strong seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and cercospora leaf area illness.

HUM-12: This is another high-yielding range established by Haryana Agricultural University. It has a period of 70 to 75 days and produces medium-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to Cercospora leaf area illness.

BM-4: This is a high-yielding range established by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. It has a period of 75 to 80 days and produces small-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to grainy mildew illness.

PDM-54: This is a high-yielding range established by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. It has a period of 80 to 85 days and produces medium-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to grainy mildew illness.

JM-72: This is a high-yielding range established by Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya. It has a period of 85 to 90 days and produces medium-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to grainy mildew illness.

K-851: This is a high-yielding range established by Punjab Agricultural University. It has a period of 90 to 95 days and produces medium-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to grainy mildew illness.

PDM-11: This is a high-yielding range established by Indian Agricultural Research Institute. It has a period of 95 to 100 days and produces large-sized seeds with excellent cooking quality. It is resistant to yellow mosaic infection and tolerant to grainy mildew illness.

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Mung Beans

Land Preparation and Sowing Techniques for Summer Green Gram

The land ought to be prepared well for sowing by a couple of rakes followed by 2 or 3 crosses, traumatic, and planking. The field ought to be totally free and well-leveled from bristles and weeds. The seed rate for summer season green gram growing has to do with 15-20 kg per hectare. The seed choice ought to be done thoroughly by picking healthy, consistent, and disease-free seeds.

The seed treatment ought to be done by soaking the seeds in water for 8 hours and after that treating them with rhizobium culture (600 g per hectare) or carbendazim (2 g per kg of seed) or thiram (3 g per kg of seed) to improve nodulation, germination, and illness resistance. The sowing ought to be done by broadcasting or drilling technique at a depth of 3 to 4 cm and a spacing of 30-45 cm in between rows and 10-15 cm in between plants. The sowing time for summer season green gram growing is from mid-March to mid-April in North India and from January to February in South India.

Irrigation Management in Summer

Irrigation is the application of water to the soil for crop development and advancement. The frequency, rate, quantity, and time of watering are various for various crops, kinds of soil, and seasons. Summer season crops require a greater quantity of water as compared to winter season. Green gram is a short-duration vegetable crop that can be grown in summer season in addition to rainy season. It is likewise referred to as mung bean or moong dal. Rich in protein, fiber, minerals, and vitamins.

It is utilized for human intake in addition to animal feed. It likewise assists enhance soil fertility by repairing climatic nitrogen. The watering requirement of green gram depends upon the soil type, environment, crop phase, and rains. Normally, green gram requires 4-5 waterings throughout its development duration. When about 20-25% of plants have actually sprouted or about 20 days after sowing, the very first watering ought to be done.

The 2nd watering ought to be done at the time of blooming, which has to do with 35-40 days after sowing. The 3rd watering ought to be done at the pod development phase, which has to do with 50-55 days after sowing. The 4th watering ought to be done at the pod-filling phase, which has to do with 65-70 days after sowing. The 5th watering might be provided if there is no rains throughout the pod maturation phase, which has to do with 80-85 days after sowing.

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Heap of Beans

The quantity of water used per watering ought to suffice to damp the root zone of the crop, which has to do with 30-40 cm deep. The rate of water application ought to be changed according to the soil seepage capability and water holding capability. The watering period ought to be based upon the soil wetness deficiency and crop water requirement. The watering technique ought to appropriate for the soil type, topography, water accessibility, and crop geometry. The typical techniques of watering for green gram are furrow watering, basin watering, sprinkler watering, and drip watering.

Pest and Disease Management

Green gram growing deals with a myriad of obstacles postured by numerous bugs and illness, each efficient in substantially lowering yield and quality. Amongst the popular foes is the Gram pod borer, understood for its polyphagous hunger assaulting leaves, pods, buds, and flowers, triggering substantial damage and a prospective 50% yield loss when uncontrolled. Another powerful enemy is the Spotted pod borer, causing approximately 30% yield loss by weaving its harmful web on pods, buds, and flowers.

The Spiny pod borer targets green gram pods, jeopardizing and leaving longitudinal slits seed quality, with a prospective yield loss of 20% in its wake. The blue butterfly and lawn blue butterfly position hazards by triggering leaf skeletonization and flower drop, respectively, resulting in yield losses of approximately 15% and 10%. The Bihar hairy caterpillar adds to a 10% yield loss through defoliation and decreased plant vitality.

Stem fly, Pod weevil, Bean aphid, Leaf hopper, Podfly, Lablab bug, Whitefly, Thrips, and Blister beetle jointly present a complex attack on green gram, each adding to yield losses varying from 10% to 15%. These bugs manifest in numerous types, targeting stems, pods, flowers, and leaves, with varied modes of problem.

Nematodes, consisting of Cyst nematode and Root-knot nematode, attack green gram roots, forming cysts or galls and hindering nutrient and water uptake, possibly triggering considerable 50% yield losses if unrestrained.

Anthracnose, Bacterial leaf blight, Cercospora leaf area, Powdery mildew, Root rot and leaf blight, Rust, and Macrophomina blight are a few of the illness at the end of the list. These can each trigger approximately 50%, 50%, 30%, 30%, 30%, and 30% yield loss, respectively. These illness impact leaves, stems, pods, and roots, showing signs like sores, blights, and wilting. Efficient management techniques are necessary to protect green gram crops from this selection of hazards. Carrying out incorporated insect management, utilizing resistant ranges, and prompt application of pesticides and fungicides.

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Raw Mung Beans

Fertilization Practices for Green Gram Crop

Green gram is a bean crop that can repair climatic nitrogen in the soil utilizing Rhizobium germs. It needs very little nitrogen fertilizer however needs phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and micronutrients for ideal development and yield. Suggested fertilization practices consist of using 10 tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure or garden compost per hectare before sowing, dealing with seeds with Rhizobium culture at 25 grams per kg of seed, using 25 kg of nitrogen, 50 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 50 kg of potassium oxide as basal dosages, and 20 kg of sulfur per hectare.

Micronutrients like zinc, boron, molybdenum, manganese, and iron used as foliar sprays or soil applications. Extreme usage of nitrogen fertilizer can trigger extreme vegetative development, postponed blooming, decreased pod setting, and increased vulnerability to illness and bugs.

Weed Control Strategies in Summer

Weeds, undesirable plants, can substantially lower the yield and quality of green gram crops by approximately 50%. To make sure effective growing, usage qualified and tidy seeds, prepare the land well by raking, traumatic, and leveling, and sowing seeds at the suggested spacing and depth. Apply pre-emergence herbicides like pendimethalin or oxyfluorfen within 3 days of sowing to manage yearly turfs and broadleaf weeds.

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Mung Beans on The Table

Hand weed or hoe the crop at 20 and 40 days after sowing to eliminate left or seasonal weeds. Mulch the crop with straw, leaves, or plastic sheets to reduce weed development and save soil wetness. Prevent intercropping or combined cropping with green gram to prevent increased weed competitors and disturbance with weed control operations. When 80% of the pods turn dry and yellowish-brown,

  • Harvesting and Post-Harvest Management
  • Green gram crops are prepared for harvest. Harvest depends upon range, sowing time, weather conditions, and market need. Post-harvest management practices consist of:
  • Manual harvesting.
  • Threshing.
  • Drying seeds to 10% wetness material.
  • Cleaning seeds.

Treating seeds with fungicides.

Storing them in tidy, dry, and airtight containers.

Seeds ought to be saved in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location from direct sunshine, wetness, and rodents. The harvesting procedure includes cutting the plants by hand or mechanically, threshing, and separating seeds from pods, chaff, and dust. Seeds ought to be dried to 8-10% wetness material, preventing direct sunshine direct exposure.

Seeds ought to be cleaned up by hand or utilizing separators or graders. Fungicides like thiram or carbendazim can avoid fungal infections throughout storage. Seeds saved in cool, dry, and well-ventilated locations, with seed wetness material listed below 10% and storage temperature level listed below 25 ° C for long-lasting practicality.

Economic Viability and Market Potential of Summer Green GramOrganic Black Gram Farming -Production In India

Grain

The expense of growing, amounting to Rs. 24,900 per hectare, includes costs on seed, natural inputs, fertilizers, herbicides, labor, watering, and various products. On the other hand, the yield of green gram stands at 1000 kg per hectare, equating to an earnings of Rs. 80,000 per hectare. The resultant earnings, computed as the distinction in between overall earnings and growing expense, is a good Rs. 55,100 per hectare. The benefit-cost ratio, an essential metric showing success, stands at a motivating 3.21.

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Beyond the financial lens, Green Gram takes pleasure in high market capacity, driven by its flexible intake patterns. It discovers usage in numerous types, such as entire seeds, divided seeds, sprouts, flour, noodles, and treats. Its export need extends to nations like Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Japan, Korea, the USA, the UK, Canada, and Australia. The increasing need is sustained by the dietary advantages of green gram and its viability for varied foods.

Conclusion(*) Summer Green Gram Cultivation stands as a sustainable and economically fulfilling farming pursuit. With a beneficial benefit-cost ratio and broadening market need, it not just guarantees financial gains for farmers however likewise adds to international nutrition through its flexible intake choices.(*)

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