Home Agriculture Exploring State-wise Different Crop Yields

Exploring State-wise Different Crop Yields


In India, a land of varied farming practices, crop yields per acre differ considerably throughout states. This variation shows the impact of environment, soil type, watering centers, and farming strategies. Our expedition explores the state-wise yields of significant crops like wheat, rice, maize, banana, and potato for the year 2022-23.

Crop Yield Per Acre in India

The information exposes interesting patterns: Punjab and Haryana lead in cereal production, while West Bengal and Odisha master rice. This post intends to offer an in-depth analysis of these variations, providing insights into India’s farming landscape.

What is Crop Yield Per Acre in India?

Crop yield per acre is a step of just how much of a crop is produced on a provided location of land. It is normally revealed in kgs or loads per hectare or acre. Various components, such as soil quality, water schedule, environment, insects, illness, crop management strategies, and seed ranges, have an influence on crop yield per acre.

Crop yield per acre is an essential indication of farming efficiency, food security in India, where half of the population primarily depends upon farming for their income. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Average crop yield per acre in India for significant crops in 2019-20 was as follows.

Crop Yield per Acre (kg)
Rice 1,620
Wheat 1,430
Maize 1,890
Sugarcane 66,000
Cotton 500
Soybean 750
Rapeseed 800
Groundnut 900
Potato 10,000
Onion 8,000

Factors Affecting Crop Yield in India

Soil quality is a vital consider crop development and nutrient supply. It can be enhanced through natural manures, garden composts, biofertilizers, green manures, crop rotation, and preservation tillage. Water schedule is likewise an essential element impacting crop development and advancement. Effective watering techniques, such as sprinkler, micro-irrigation, or drip, can boost water schedule. Environment, which describes long-lasting patterns of temperature level, rainfall, sunlight, humidity, and wind, can be customized through climate-resilient crops, crop diversity, intercropping, agroforestry, and secured growing.

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Paddy Farming

Diseases and insects, consisting of pests, termites, nematodes, fungis, weeds, germs, and infections, can be managed utilizing integrated bug management practices. Crop management practices, consisting of land preparation, seed choice, sowing, fertilization, weed control, harvesting, and post-harvest handling, can be enhanced through great farming practices (GAP) like accuracy farming, digital farming, and farm mechanization.

Crop yield per acre is a vital indication of a nation’s farming performance and efficiency, affected by elements like soil quality, water schedule, bug, environment and illness management, crop range, fertilizer usage, watering, and farming practices. In India, the typical yield per hectare of foodgrains increased from 1,876 kg in 2015-16 to 2,156 kg in 2019-20, a 14.9% development.

The typical yield per hectare of oilseeds likewise increased from 1,080 kg to 1,199 kg, an 11% development. The typical yield per hectare of sugarcane increased from 70.5 tonnes to 72.8 tonnes, a 3.3% development, and the typical yield per hectare of cotton increased from 486 kg to 495 kg, a 1.9% development. These figures are still lower than the worldwide average and the possible yields that can be accomplished with enhanced practices and innovations.

Crop-Specific Yield Analysis in India

Crop-specific yield analysis in India is an approach utilized to approximate the real and possible yield of various crops grown in various areas. Elements such as soil quality, fertilizer usage, bug control, climate condition, and watering impact crop yield. Anticipating crop yield needs effective and dependable analytical designs. Dharmaraja et al. utilized direct regression and time-series designs to anticipate the yield of Bajra (pearl millet) in Alwar district of Rajasthan, utilizing information from 1980 to 2014.

Singh et al. proposed a yield forecast design for 36 crops grown in 542 districts of India utilizing regression algorithms from 1997 to 2016. This analysis can assist scientists, farmers, and policymakers make notified choices relating to crop production, marketing, storage, trade, and examine the effect of environment modification on crop yield and food security.

Government Initiatives for Improving Crop Yield

India’s federal government has actually carried out numerous plans and programs to increase crop yield and farming efficiency. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY), an insurance coverage plan that supplies financial backing to farmers in crop failure by natural disasters, insects, and illness. The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) intends to enhance water utilize performance by offering water to every field.

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harvesting corn

The Soil Health Card Scheme (SHC) supplies farmers with soil health cards with info on nutrient status and fertilizer suggestions. The National Food Security Mission offer to increase rice, wheat, pulses, and coarse cereal production through location growth and enhanced agronomic practices. The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture promotes sustainable farming practices like natural farming, rainfed farming, incorporated farming systems, and climate-resilient farming.

Challenges Faced in Achieving High Crop Yields

Despite federal government and stakeholder efforts, farmers in India require assistance in accomplishing high crop yields. These consist of fragmented and little land holdings, low input usage of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and equipment, bad soil health due to overexploitation, disintegration, salinization, nutrient, and acidification exhaustion, extreme water shortage and tension due to increasing need, decreasing supply, and ineffective management, environment modification and irregularity, and absence of market gain access to and facilities.

Fragmented and little land holdings restrict the scope for mechanization, watering, and adoption of enhanced innovations. Low input usage impacts crop development and yield capacity. Poor soil health, water shortage, environment modification, and absence of market gain access to and facilities prevent post-harvest management and worth addition of crops, resulting in high losses, low costs, and low earnings for farmers. Resolving these difficulties is making sure sustainable farming practices and promoting sustainable development.

Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yields

Climate modification presents risk to farming in the 21st century, with considerable influence on crop yields in India. Elements such as temperature level increase, rains irregularity, co2 concentration, and increasing water level can impact crop phenology, development, biochemistry, and physiology phases. Temperature level increase can minimize development period, boost evapotranspiration, modify photosynthesis and respiration procedures, and impact pollen practicality and grain filling. Rain irregularity can likewise trigger floods or dry spells, destructive crops and lowering yield capacity.

Carbon dioxide concentration can boost photosynthesis and water utilize performance however minimize nitrogen fixation and protein material. The increase in water level can impact seaside farming by triggering salinity invasion, disintegration, inundation, and submergence of land, along with impacting freshwater resources for watering. A research study by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute forecasts that environment modification might minimize rice yield by 4-6%, wheat by 6-23%, maize by 18-23%, and sorghum by 2-14% by 2050 in India.

Comparison of Crop Yields Across Different States in India

Crop Punjab Haryana Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Uttar Pradesh Bihar West Bengal Odisha
Wheat 4,500 4,200 2,800 3,000 2,500 2,000 3,200 2,700 2,600 2,400
Rice 6,000 5,500 3,500 4,000 3,800 4,500 5,000 4,800 5,200 4,700
Maize 5,000 4,800 3,000 3,500 3,200 2,800 3,800 3,400 3,300 3,100
Banana 25,000 22,000 18,000 20,000 19,000 23,000 21,000 19,500 20,500 18,500
Potato 15,000 14,000 12,000 13,000 11,500 13,500 14,500 13,500 14,500 12,500

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harvesting machine

Innovative Farming Techniques for Increasing Crop Yields

Innovative farming strategies, like accuracy farming, vertical farming, biofortification, and genetic modification, can increase crop yields by enhancing crop development, soil health, water illness, usage and bug management, and lowering crop losses. Accuracy farming utilizes sensing units, drones, satellites, and expert system to enhance and keep an eye on crop development, while vertical farming utilizes aeroponics or hydroponics systems to provide nutrients and water to plants.

Biofortification types crops to boost their dietary worth, enhancing human health and lowering poor nutrition. Genetic modification customizes crop genes to enhance qualities like dry spell resistance, bug resistance, quality, rack, and yield life, lowering crop losses and increasing food security.

Role of Technology in Enhancing Crop Yields

Technology considerably improves crop yields by offering farmers with precise info about weather report, market value, and federal government plans through mobile apps, SMS services, and radio programs. It likewise enables access to quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and equipment through digital payments and online platforms.

It likewise enhances watering performance and water management through drip and lawn sprinkler, helps with post-harvest management through freezer and food conservation strategies, and promotes understanding sharing amongst farmers through social media and online courses groups.

Economic Implications of Varied Crop Yields

  • Higher crop yields can increase farm earnings, minimize hardship, enhance the incomes of countless farmers in India.
  • Higher crop yields can likewise reduce food costs, boost food schedule, and boost food security for countless customers in India.
  • Higher crop yields can increase farming development, add to GDP, and create job opportunity in city and rural locations.
  • Lower crop yields can minimize farm earnings, boost insolvency, and get worse distress amongst farmers in India.
  • Lower crop yields can likewise raise food costs, minimize food schedule, and get worse food insecurity amongst customers in India.
  • Lower crop yields can obstruct farming development, impact GDP, and develop joblessness issues in city and rural locations.

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Harvesting soybean using harvester

Sustainable Practices for Maximizing Crop Yields

  • Adopting natural farming techniques that utilize natural inputs such as garden compost, vermicompost, biofertilizers, and biopesticides to boost soil fertility and crop health.
  • Practicing incorporated bug management (IPM) that integrates biological, cultural, mechanical, and chemical techniques to manage insects and illness without damaging useful organisms and biodiversity.
  • Implementing climate-smart farming (CSA) that adjusts to the altering environment conditions by utilizing drought-tolerant, heat-tolerant, and flood-tolerant crop ranges, saving soil and water resources, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Diversifying cropping systems by growing various crops in rotation or intercropping to minimize bug and illness occurrence, enhance soil health, and boost earnings stability.
  • Enhancing crop durability by utilizing crop insurance coverage plans, weather-based advisories, and early caution systems to manage weather condition unpredictabilities and natural catastrophes.

Future Projections for Crop Yields in India

  • Rice: The predicted yield for 2050 is 3.8 tonnes per hectare (t/ha), which is 52% greater than the existing yield of 2.5 t/ha. The predicted yield space (the distinction in between real and possible yield) is 1.6 t/ha, which is 30% of the possible yield of 5.4 t/ha.
  • Wheat: The predicted yield for 2050 is 4.1 t/ha, which is 37% greater than the existing yield of 3 t/ha. The predicted yield space is 1.7 t/ha, which is 29% of the possible yield of 5.8 t/ha.
  • Maize: The predicted yield for 2050 is 4.3 t/ha, which is 54% greater than the existing yield of 2.8 t/ha. The predicted yield space is 2.1 t/ha, which is 33% of the possible yield of 6.4 t/ha.
  • Climate modification: The predicted boost in temperature level and rains irregularity can impact crop development, quality, and advancement, along with boost bug and illness pressure.
  • Technology adoption: The adoption of enhanced seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, watering, equipment, and digital tools can boost crop success, performance, and efficiency.
  • Policy assistance: The arrangement of aids, rewards, credit, market, extension, and insurance coverage linkages can assist in farm input gain access to, output marketing, danger management, and earnings generation.

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soybean harvesting machine


Examining state-wise crop yields in India exposes considerable variations, with elements such as environment, soil quality, and farming practices playing critical functions. Comprehending these variations is vital for farmers and policymakers to boost farming efficiency, food security throughout the country.



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